Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report
San Francisco Estuary Invasive Spartina Project: Spartina Control Program
September 2003

Table of Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY......................................................................................................... S-1

1.0     INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................. 1-1

1.1     The Spartina Control Program.................................................................................. 1-1

1.2     Purpose and Need..................................................................................................... 1-5

1.3     Purpose and Use of This EIS/R.............................................................................. 1-28

1.4     Document Organization.......................................................................................... 1-31

2.0     PROGRAM ALTERNATIVES........................................................................................ 2-1

2.1     Development of Alternatives for Evaluation............................................................ 2-1

2.2     Description of Alternatives...................................................................................... 2-2

2.3     Alternatives and Treatment Methods Considered and Eliminated from Further Evaluation........................................................................ 2-24

3.0     ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING, IMPACTS, AND MITIGATION MEASURES......................................................................................... 3-0.1

3.1     Geomorphology and Hydrology............................................................................ 3.1-1

3.2     Water Quality........................................................................................................ 3.2-1

3.3     Biological Resources.............................................................................................. 3.3-1

3.4     Air Quality............................................................................................................. 3.4-1

3.5     Noise...................................................................................................................... 3.5-1

3.6     Human Health and Safety...................................................................................... 3.6-1

3.7     Visual Resources.................................................................................................... 3.7-1

3.8     Land Use................................................................................................................ 3.8-1

3.9     Cultural Resources................................................................................................. 3.9-1

3.10   Socioeconomics.................................................................................................... 3.10-1

3.11   Environmental Justice.......................................................................................... 3.11-1

3.12   Cumulative Impacts............................................................................................. 3.12-1

4.0     EVALUATION OF PROJECT ALTERNATIVES.......................................................... 4-1

4.1     Comparison of Alternatives...................................................................................... 4-1

4.2     NEPA Environmentally Preferred Alternative......................................................... 4-3

4.3     CEQA Environmentally Superior Alternative.......................................................... 4-3

4.4     Unavoidable Significant Adverse Impacts................................................................ 4-4

5.0     ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE............................................................................. 5-1

5.1     Applicable Federal Laws, Regulations, Executive Orders, and Approvals................................................................................................................. 5-1

5.2     Applicable State Laws, Regulations, and Policies.................................................... 5-8

5.3     Regional Plans and Policies..................................................................................... 5-12

5.4     Local Laws, Regulations, and Permits.................................................................... 5-14

5.5     Agency Jurisdiction and Project Approvals........................................................... 5-14

6.0     PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT............................................................................................... 6-1

6.1     Public Concerns........................................................................................................ 6-1

6.2     List of Document Recipients.................................................................................... 6-6

7.0     LIST OF PREPARERS AND CONTRIBUTORS............................................................ 7-1

7.1     California Coastal Conservancy................................................................................ 7-1

7.2     US Fish and Wildlife Service..................................................................................... 7-1

7.3     Technical Consultants............................................................................................... 7-1

8.0     DEFINITIONS................................................................................................................... 8-1

9.0     REFERENCES................................................................................................................... 9-1

9.1     Personal Communications......................................................................................... 9-1

9.2     Bibliography............................................................................................................. 9-1

10.0   COMMENTS AND RESPONSES ON THE DRAFT EIS/R......................................... 10-1

10.1   Introduction............................................................................................................ 10-1

10.2   Comments and Responses...................................................................................... 10.3

10.3   Staff-Initiated Text Changes and Errata.............................................................. 10-135

 

 APPENDICES (Volume 2)

A.      Notice of Intent

B.      Notice of Preparation

C.      CEQA Initial Study

D.      NOP/NOI Public Comment Letters

E.      Herbicide and Surfactant Information

F.      Sensitive Species Table

G.      Best Management Practices for the California Clapper Rail

H.     List of Document Recipients

I.       ISP First-Year Pilot and Demonstration Projects

J.      USFWS Biological Opinion

K.     Mitigation Monitoring and Reporting Program


FIGURES

1-1    Spartina Control Program Region....................................................................................... 1-3

1-2    Components of the San Francisco Estuary Invasive Spartina Project............................... 1-5

1-3    Cordgrass Species............................................................................................................. 1-13

1-4    Distribution of Non-native Cordgrass in San Francisco Estuary..................................... 1-19

1-5    Effects of Non-Native Cordgrass on the San Francisco Estuary...................................... 1-21

1-6    California Shoreline with Estuaries North and South of San Francisco Bay................................................................................................................................... 1-28

1-7    Typical San Francisco Estuary Habitats Invaded by Atlantic Smooth
Cordgrass   ....................................................................................................................... 1-29

2-1    Examples of Methods that May be Used to Control Non-native Cordgrass............................................................................................................................ 2-3

2-2    Examples of Options for Combining Treatment Methods............................................... 2-20

2-3    Number of Minus tide Events in 2003 with Peak and Potential California Clapper Rail Nesting and Fledging Periods...................................................... 2-21

3.2-1 Locations and Mean Discharges for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants in South San Francisco Bay................................................................ 3.2-2

3.3-1 California Clapper Rail Presence/Absence Relative to Non-native Cordgrass......................................................................................................................... 3.3-9

3.3-2 Conceptual Model of Possible Exposure of Biological Organisms to Herbicide Mixtures........................................................................................................ 3.3-27

3.7-1 Changes in Views Associated with Herbicide Use.......................................................... 3.7-3

3.7-2 Changes in Views Associated with Herbicide Use and Mechanical Mowing........................................................................................................................... 3.7-5

3.7-3 Changes in Views Associated with with Covering and Native Plant Recovery.......................................................................................................................... 3.7-7

 


TABLES

S-1    Alternatives Analyzed in this EIS/R.................................................................................. S-3

S-2    Comparison of Impacts of Project Alternatives................................................................. S-7

1-1    Net and Gross Area Invaded by Non-native Cordgrass Species (2000-2001)...................................................................................................................... 1-17

1-2    Net Area in Acreage of Non-native Cordgrass Species by Bay Subregion (2000-2001) .................................................................................................... 1-17

2-1    Summary of Proposed Treatment Methods..................................................................... 2-13

2-2    Glyphosate Herbicide Component Concentrations and Application Rates................................................................................................................................. 2-17

3-1    Baseline and Post-Project Conditions............................................................................. 3.0-2

3.1-1 Summary of Potential Hydrologic and Geomorphic Effects......................................... 3.1-14

3.1-2 Summary of Mitigation Measures for Hydrology and Geomorphology............................................................................................................. 3.1-16

3.2-1 Dissolved Concentrations of Trace Metals in Water Samples........................................ 3.2-5

3.2-2 Total Concentrations of Trace Metals in Water Samples............................................... 3.2-6

3.2-3 Ranges of Trace Pollutants in San Francisco Bay Sediments.......................................... 3.2-6

3.2-4 Beneficial Uses of Waters of the San Francisco Estuary................................................. 3.2-7

3.2-5 Water Quality Criteria for Selected Constituents............................................................ 3.2-8

3.2-6 Sediment Chemistry Screening Guidelines ................................................................... 3.2-11

3.2-7 Summary of Potential Water Quality Effects................................................................ 3.2-19

3.2-8 Summary of Mitigation Measures for Water Quality................................................... 3.2-20

3.3-1 Summary of Potential Biological Resources Effects...................................................... 3.3-51

3.3-2 Summary of Mitigation Measures for Biological Resources......................................... 3.3-68

3.4-1 State and National Standards for Selected Criteria Pollutants, and Measured Air Pollutant Concentrations in the San Francisco Bay Area................................................................................................................................. 3.4-2

3.4-2 Summary of Potential Air Quality Effects...................................................................... 3.4-8

3.4-3 Summary of Mitigation Measures for Air Quality....................................................... 3.4-10

3.5-1 Technical Terms for Noise.............................................................................................. 3.5-2

3.5-2 Representative Outdoor and Indoor Noise Levels.......................................................... 3.5-3

3.5-3 Summary of Potential Noise Effects............................................................................... 3.5-8

3.5-4 Summary of Mitigation Measures for Noise................................................................... 3.5-9

3.6-1 Summary of Potential Human Health and Safety Effects............................................... 3.6-9

3.6-2 Summary of Mitigation Measures for Human Health and Safety................................. 3.6-11

3.7-1 Summary of Potential Visual Resources Effects........................................................... 3.7-11

3.8-1 Summary of Potential Land Use Effects......................................................................... 3.8-5

3.9-1 Summary of Potential Cultural Resources Effects.......................................................... 3.9-7

3.9-2 Summary of Mitigation Measures for Cultural Resources.............................................. 3.9-8

3.10-1 Distribution of Jobs in San Francisco Bay Area Counties.......................................... 3.10-1

4-1    Description of Project Alternatives Considered in This EIS/R.......................................... 4-1

5.5-1 Agency Jurisdiction and Project Approvals..................................................................... 5-14